Biology Scheme of Work for SS 2 Federal

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Biology Curriculum
Biology Curriculum

Education Resource Centre Senior Secondary School Sciences. SS 2 Biology Scheme of Work Federal. –


1.DIGESTIVE SYSTEMi). Modification of the feeding habits; filter feeders;- fluid feeders,- insects feeders;-parasitic and saprophytic feeders ii) feeding in protozoa  and hydra etc. iii). feeding in mammals; iv). modification of pests to effect digestive function of man, dog, rabbits etc. i) Use the specimens and charts of the digestive system of housefly, butterfly, cockroach, tapeworm sheep or dog to illustrate different types of feeding mechanism ii) students should observe provided specimens noting the various modification found in the animals
2.TRANSPORT SYSTEMDefinition of transport system; importance of diffusion osmosis to transport system; transport system in large organisms (plants and animals); importance of transport system; materials for transport structures of arteries, veins, vascular bundlesi)set up an experiment on rate of diffusion of a colored liquid. ii)students to observe and record the time         taken by the colored 
3.TRANSPORT SYSTEM CONTINUES i)media of transportation e.g blood, latex, cell, sap, cytoplasm e.t.c ii) components and structure of blood;- white blood, red blood cells, platelets and plasmai)instruct students to detach, the leaves of pawpaw, cassava, allemande or robber ii)observe and make inference on the materials the plants detached above
4.TRANSPORT SYSTEM CONTINUESMechanism of transport in i)simple organism; multi-cellular, organism ; higher plants and animals; higher; asopthon and transportation of waters and mineral saltsi)explain the structure of artery vein using well drawn diagrams
5.RESPIRATORY SYSTEMi) Types of respiratory system; body surface respiration, Gill system; trached system; lungsi) Display the Gills remove from a dead tilapia for students to observe the various structures. ii)students to observe the gill flakes, gill arch and gill filaments 
6.RESPIRATORY SYSTEM CONTINUESi) Mechanism of respiration in higher animals (inhalation and exhalation) ii) mechanism of respiration in lower animalsi). Mouth prepared slides showing respiratory organs of the earthworm, tilapia, toad, grasshopper and rats. ii). Observe that respiratory organs of various animals
7.EXCRETORY SYSTEMi). Contractive vacuoles, flame cell, malpighian tubules, kidneys, stomata and lenticels i). ask students to observe malpighian tubules in a dissected cockroach and rat ii). Students to observe and saw malpighian tubule and the excretory system in rat and record their observations.
8.NUTRIENT CYCLING IN NATUREi). Definition of nutrient cycling e.g. carbon cycle, oxygen and water cycle ii). Representation and processes of each of the nutrient cycle listed above iii). Importance of nutrient cycle to plants, animals and man iv). Carbon-oxygen balanceLead students to perform experiment to show absorption of carbon dioxide and release of oxygen during photosynthesis ii) draw the carbon cycle and water cycle
9.DECOMPOSITION IN NATURE   ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT: TOLERANCEi). Micro and macro decomposers ii). Importance and roles of decomposers to man iii). Concept of minimum and maximum of tolerance. iv). Geographic range-graph illustrating maximum and minimum range tolerance.i). The teacher shall mount experiment to show that carbon dioxide, ammonia are released during decomposition  ii). Show through experiment that heat is released during decomposition  iii). The students should identify the gases released during decomposition  iv). To guide the student to perform experiment showing limit to tolerance  v). The students shall subject the tilapia fish to different level of salt concentration and record the observation on the opercula movements
10.ECOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT CONTINUES     (B) ADAPTATIONi)types of association; symbiosis (mutualism), parasitism, commensalism ii) features of biological importance possessed by organisms to an association     i). In form and functions; due to environmental conduction ii). Effect of water availability to adaptive modification iii). Structural adaptation of tadpole and fish to life in water iv). Structural adaptation in birdsi). Ask students to collect ticks from cows and dogs and were possible the hermit crab .ii)students collect ticks from cow and dogs   i). Places chameleon against different back ground ii). Ask students to observe and record color change       
11.POLLUTIONi). Atmospheric pollution – nature, names, and sources of air pollution ii). Effect of air and noise pollutants  iii). Water and soil pollution – types, composition and side effectsi). Lead students to an industrial estate ii). Students observe the effect of industrial waste on the environment.


1.CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCESi). Definition ii). Needs or importance of conservation iii). Methods or ways of consenting natural resources (legislation Education, Erection of packs, and reserves). iv). Agencies responsible for conservation v). Problems associated with conservation.  i). Pass round the Law of conservation document ii). Proffer solutions to photocopy of conservation by students.    
2.PEST AND DISEASES OF CROPSi). Definition of pest ii). Classification of pest by (a) the pest of the plants they attacks e.g. (stem borers, root feeders, leaf feeder, plants and seed feeder) ii). The animals types (invertebrates e.g. nematodes, arthropode, locust etc) (c) Vertebrate pests (bird) e.g.   gull, weaver bird, mammal e.g. rodent monkey)(i) the teacher together with  the students should create  a table showing the relationship of crop disease, their agents and method of control.
3.PEST AND DISEASES OF CROPi). Life cycle and control of pest ii). Disease caused by pest and their agents e.g. viral disease, bacterial diseases and fungi disease iii). Methods of pest diseases control- Physical, Biological and chemical methods.    i). Trace the life cycle of some pest      
4.REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM IN FISH AND REPTILESi). Structures of male and female reproductive organ ii). Parts and functions of male and female reproductive organ of fish and reptiles iii). Structure of male and female gametes v). Differences b/w male and female reproductive organ of fish and reptiles. i). Present to students, the dissected male and female vertebrate showing their reproductive organs.    
5.REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM IN BIRD AND MAMMALS.i). Structures of male and female reproductive system ii). Parts and function of the reproductive system. iii). Structures and Differences of male and female gametes iv). Differences between male and female reproductive organ.       Mount fresh sperm specimen from rat under a microscope. Students to observe, draw and label the spasm cell.  
6.             (B)REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM IN BIRD AND MAMMALS CONTINUES      REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM IN PLAITS i). Structural differences in the egg of vertebrates ii). Tabulation and comparison of reproduction in fish, reptiles, birds and mammals.        i). Structure and function of the floral parts ii). Arrangement of the major reproductive parts (whorls) i). Mount fresh sperm specimen from rat under a microscope. Students to observe, draw and label the spasm cell   i). Ask students to examine the various parts of a flower provided    
7.REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM IN PLANTS CONTINUEi). Types of flower (ii) types of ovaries (iii) important terms often used to study flowers e.g. Bisexuals, mono-sexual, inflorescence, Regular incomplete etc.    ii). Students to point out the essential and non essential parts of a flower. 
8.POLLINATION IN PLANTSi). Definition and types, ii). Features of self pollinated flower iii). Features of cross pollinated flowers; iv). Agents of pollination – Water, wind, insect animals. i). Teacher to ask students to relate the position of stigma and stamens to the type of pollination students also to examine the nature of the pollen grain.  
9.REGULATION OF INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT i). Definition of homeostasis ii). Organs and processes involved in homeostasis iii). The structure, function and disease of kidney. Effects of kidney diseases and their possible remedies     i). Show students photographs of normal and diseased liver and kidney.  
10.THE LIVERi)The structure, function and diseases of liver ii). Effects of liver diseases and remedies iii). Processes and metabolism of deamination, and metabolism of carbohydrate and lepids.i). Make labelled diagram of the liver and the organs around it.   
11.PLANT HORMONESi). Definition and types ii). Functions of the plant hormones iii). Effects axin on lateral development, leaf fall and initiation of adventious roots iv). Modern application of axin and other hormones, and with reference to early flowing, crop harvest and weed control etc.     i). Tabulate the list of plant hormones and their application


1REGULATION OF INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT CONTINUES ENDOCRINE GLANDSi). The endocrine glands and its hormones ii). Functions of the endocrine glands iii). Effect of under-secretion or over-secretion of endocrine hormonesi). Observe the distribution of endocrine glands on charts and photographs
2.THE SKINi). Structure of mammalian skin ii). Functions of the mammalian skin iii). Care of the mammalian skini). The teacher shall mount the skin of a mammal on the microscope and students should observe and identify the different parts
3.NERVOUS COORDINATIONi). Organization of the nervous system ii). The central nervous system (CNS) iii). Peripheral nervous system (PNS)i). The students shall be asked to draw the dorsal part of the brain of rabbit and the diagram of a neurone 
4.THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)i) Position, structure and function of the brain ii) The position, structure and function of the spinal cordi) The students shall be asked to draw and label the diagram of a simple reflex act
5.THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS)i) The flow chart representing the different part of the P.N.S ii) The somatic NS (iii) Autonomic NS iv) Sympathetic N.S and parasympathetic N.Si) The differences between sympathetic and parasympathetic N.S in tabular form
6.STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF A NEURONEi). Types of neuron (motor, sensory and relay) ii). Structure of a neuron. iii). Transportation of nerve impulse iv). Reflex actions voluntary actions (examples) v). Pavlov experiment on dog, food and bell   i). Guides students to perform experiment show reflex action: flicked a hand kerchief across the student eyes.  
7.SENSE ORGANSA) Organ of smell (ii) Mechanism of smelling with the help of olfactory chemorecptor (iii) adaptation for survival e.g. animals (dog) sniff during hunting Presence of chemoreceptors in insects (butterflies). Antenna for sensing the environment. Taste buds on tongue and part played in testing. Sensory nerve ending/receptors associated with skin touch, deep pressure, heart and pain Structure of the ear and past played by the various parts.i) Smell a released cooking gas ii) Note the area of tongue, which are sensitive to sweetness and bitterness etc
8.SENSE ORGANS CONTINUESi) Organs of sight (eye) and its parts ii) Functions of the different parts of the eyes iii) The role of the eyes in image formation and accommodation iv) Eye defects: Myopia,  hypermetropia, presbyopia, astigmatism Eye problem/diseases: Cataract, night blindness, colour blindness etc.i) Using model, students are made to identify the various part of the eye.
9.ECOLOGY OF POPULATION(a) Succession i). meaning of succession   ii). Structural change in species composition, variety and increase in number  iii). Primary succession in an aquatic habitat iv). Secondary succession : meaning and examples v) characteristics of a stable community (b) Overcrowding i). Population  density studies and available resources ii). Importance of factors affecting population spacei) Take a the students to a nearby pond to observe colonizers   ii) Ask students from other classes to join your class and find out the effect of the increased population on students.
10.ECOLOGY OF POPULATION CONTINUESi) Relationship between competition and succession ii) Factors that cause overcrowding iii). Ways of avoiding overcrowding . Effect of food shortage: competition, reproduction, emigration rate  i) Observe the activities of grasshopper in two boxes
11.BALANCE IN NATUREi) Factors affecting population   – biotic    – Abiotic ii) Dynamic equilibrium in  nature iii) Factors that maintain dynamic equilibrium such as availability of food Natural disaster  iii) Family planning – Natural and artificial methods of population control (sex education)i) Map out an area in the school ii) Plant seedling to show inter-specific and intra-specific competition iii) Display a chart showing the family planning methods  

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